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Major causes of Low Productivity in Indian Agriculture

Being an agricultural country, India needs help in the agriculture sector and farming. There are endless causes of low productivity in Indian agriculture, and here we have listed 9 major causes.

It’s essential to boost productivity in this sector, where almost 50% of India’s workforce is employed and working day and night for it. Low productivity in Indian agriculture is the biggest challenge. The reason behind this is that it directly affects the income of the farmers, causes food insecurity, and affects the economic growth of our nation.

But where there are challenges, there are solutions too; this article will also mention the suggestions to improve agriculture in India.

9 Causes of Low Productivity in Indian Agriculture

Although there are multiple causes for low productivity in agriculture, we have broadly mentioned the 9 most pressing factors responsible:

Overdependence on Monsoons & Erratic Irrigation

India has the world’s most extensive irrigation infrastructure, but still, nearly 60% of Indian agriculture is dependent upon unpredictable monsoons. The climate of India is highly unreliable as both droughts and unexpected floods can cause massive crop losses and severely impact productivity and farmer’s income. Even irrigated land needs help with issues like inadequate water supply, flooding irrigation, and poor drainage.

Highly Fragmented Land Holdings

Over 92% of Indian farmers work on tiny and marginal land of approximately 1-2 acres per farmer, which makes capital-intensive technology improvements difficult. Small sizes prevent machinery and tools, which may boost production by 30-40%. Several consolidation efforts have also failed because the owners are not willing to sell their holdings (Small lands).

Slow Adoption of High Yielding Varieties

Although the Indian agriculture market is full of high-quality, high-yielding, and climate-resilient seeds, farmers and small farm owners are still not utilizing them. As per data research, only 35-40% of farmers are using these seeds due to a lack of awareness and high prices (Because of the monopoly). Using lower-quality seeds is also one of the biggest causes of low productivity in agriculture.

Imbalanced Fertilizer Application

India’s Green Revolution has increased the use of chemical fertilizers, which were often excessive and imbalanced, but chemical fertilizers damage the soil. Chemical fertilizers that use nitrogen instead of potash/phosphorus decrease efficiency over time, which, in turn, requires more significant doses for equal effects. The usage of chemical fertilizers increases costs and soil toxicity and decreases natural fertility.

Outmoded Crop Yields Forecasting

Farmers do not have an accurate forecasting facility or tools, and due to untimely or inaccurate crop forecasts, they face difficulties in estimating production volumes and crop prices. Now, when they forecast the crop yield inaccurately, they will definitely need more time to make informed sowing decisions for higher profitability. This highly impacts the productivity of the farmers and leads to unstable farm incomes.

Absence of Farm Input Quality Control

Being a nation of agriculture, India is not so strong in quality control regulations around seeds, fertilizers, and pesticides. The growing number of fake expired, or degraded inputs are damaging the crop quality and yields and ultimately damaging the soils over time. Indian agriculture needs solid regulation to drive more productivity & gain for farmers.

Grossly Inadequate Cold Chain Infrastructure

We need to have the best or required cold storage, which leads to a complete waste of our fruits and vegetables. Every year, nearly 40% of India’s fruit and vegetable output is wasted before consumption due to a lack of refrigerated transport or processing facilities near production sites. If we have a better cold chain infrastructure, then it will reduce the price risks, prevent distress sales, reduce food losses, and definitely raise farm incomes.

Limited access to credit and post-harvest facilities

Our farmers often need help in getting loans and need access to adequate storage and processing facilities. This leads to post-harvest losses, discourages investments in agriculture, and traps farmers in a cycle of debt. Productivity can be boosted by establishing farmer-friendly credit schemes, promoting cold chains, and developing rural infrastructure.

Inadequate rural infrastructure and support services

Indian agriculture is struggling with poor rural infrastructure that includes limited access to roads, electricity, and communication networks, which makes it difficult for market connectivity and restricts access to essential services and agricultural development. Indian agriculture needs a solid rural infrastructure and a robust network of support services to boost the productivity of rural areas.

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Top Reasons for Backwardness of Indian Agriculture

As we have listed the top reasons for low productivity in agriculture, here are some other reasons for the backwardness of Indian agriculture:

Pressure of Overpopulation

India has limited land resources, and for farming, the land is limited. As the population rises, it decreases the per capita farmland and increases the competition for water and inputs. This pressure is the biggest reason for the backwardness of our agricultural practices and land improvement.

Land tenure System

For ages, the Zamindari system in India has been the most significant factor in the backwardness of Indian agriculture. Farmers who sow their seeds and produce crops on other people’s (Zamindar) land are bound to take less interest due to Zamindar’s unnecessary pressure and fear of losing their crops. Although the Zamindari system was abolished after Independence, farmers and cultivators are still struggling.

Low Research and Development Investments

India has yet to see any rise in investment in agricultural research and development. Farmers are struggling with stagnant public and private investments in agricultural R&D, which directly or indirectly affect the innovation and adoption of advanced technologies.

Regular decline in soil fertility

Cultivators in India do not have any substantial income from organic farming, and hence, they are forced to use (Or overuse) chemical fertilizers, which leads to bad soil. This weakens soil structure, reduces water retention, and ultimately leads to lower yields and increased vulnerability to pests and diseases.

Note: There are multiple other reasons for backwardness of Indian agriculture, but these are some of the major causes which need to be addressed.

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Solutions and Suggestions to Improve Agriculture in India

India needs a multi-pronged strategy across key aspects like irrigation, infrastructure, technology, and markets to boost agriculture productivity and farmer prosperity.

Also if you want to boost productivity in agriculture, then you must think about calcium nitrate fertilizer uses and use it in your farming.

Enhancement of irrigation facilities

Firstly, Indian agriculture needs to enhance irrigation access so that farmers would be less dependent on monsoons. Governments or institutions can build local water storage systems through check dams, farm ponds, and tanks, and revamping irrigation infrastructure with a focus on water use efficiency is critical.

Expansion of Cold Storage

It is essential to expand cold storage and warehousing infrastructure near production centers to decrease post-harvest losses and give farmers flexibility on when to sell produce. Added transportation links will also enable access to broader markets.

Technological Advancements

Indian agriculture needs acceleration in the development and distribution of climate-resilient, high-yielding crop varieties, along with branded soil testing processes and micronutrient supplements to customize soil fertility enhancement. Governments should also focus on educating farmers on scientific precision-agriculture techniques and technologies.

Facilitation of free trade

Deregulation of agriculture markets while dismantling archaic APMC laws to facilitate free trade and commerce is essential. Allowing open markets and contract farming options gives farmers a choice to sell produce via channels offering better economics while drawing private sector investment.

Protection Against Weather 

It is revamping crop insurance schemes to provide customized risk coverage options to farmers, protecting against weather vagaries, pest attacks, and post-harvest price crashes based on production costs. This shields incomes and encourages reinvestment even after crop failures.

Consolidation of Land

Governments must facilitate the consolidation of land holdings via incentives and pooling mechanisms to create economies of scale.

Apart from all these solutions and suggestions to improve agriculture in India, governments and farmers should try to eliminate all the challenges and causes of low productivity and ensure all-round economic and social development.

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How can Krishispray boost productivity in Indian Agriculture?

Krishispray is a leading manufacturer of agricultural equipment that has the potential to boost the productivity of Indian farmers. The range of sprayers, nozzles, spray machine and guns are some of the innovations in agriculture that can help increase the productivity & efficiency of the farmers in India.

We at Krishispray are committed to providing excellent spraying solutions to farmers and making their farming practices more efficient and productive than ever.


If we want our Indian agriculture to grow and boom in the coming years, then we have to take crucial steps for their advancement. The steps must include knowledge, resources, and required market access to the Indian farmers. Agriculture & farming is not just about food security; it’s more about building a prosperous future for the generations to come.