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An Ultimate Guide to Mango Farming in India for Beginners

Do you want to start mango farming in India but don’t know how to do it? This guide will help you.

India is the largest mango producer in the world and if you start mango farming then there’s a huge chance that you can be a successful mango farmer in upcoming years. But, everything starts from the first step, this blog is your first step in mango cultivation. We will provide you with a comprehensive beginning overview of mango farming for first-timers in India.

Introduction to Mango Farming in India

India is the world’s largest mango producer and produces more than half of all global production. Mangoes have been grown in India since ancient times. If you consider mango tree plantation, India offers the best climate and already developed infrastructure.

Why Farm Mangoes in India?

There are multiple reasons why farmers want to start mango plantations in India, some of them are:

Tropical climate perfect for mangoes: India is known for a perfect weather setting for mangoes, you can easily grow healthy trees and mango fruits in warm climates where there are clear wet and dry seasons.

History of mango cultivation: You will find endless age-old techniques and varieties of mangoes that will help you in farming.

Supportive government programs: Subsidies and incentives such as mango farming with high mango yield per tree are crop insurance export facilitation, among others.

Wide domestic and international demand: Mangoes are among the most sought-after fruits globally and domestically and have an established consumer base for both local consumption and export.

How to Start Mango Cultivation in India?

Here’s the step-by-step guide for mango plantation for beginners:

Step 1: Select the suitable mango variety.

Over 1,000 varieties are grown in India! Choose based on your region’s climate and soil. Common commercial varieties include Alphonso, Dasheri, and Langra.

Step 2: Prepare land and plant saplings.

Level ground, test soil, dig pits for saplings, install irrigation, and amend soil as needed.

Step 3: Tend young trees

Water, prune, and fertilize regularly for healthy growth. Apply pest and disease control measures.

Step 4: Wait for fruiting

Mangoes grafted from mature trees will bear fruit in 3-4 years. Seedling trees can take 5-8 years.

With passion and hard work, mango farming in India can be a rewarding endeavor. The future looks bright for mango cultivation to continue thriving in India.

How to Select the Right Mango Variety and Planting Materials

Selecting a suitable mango plantation variety is crucial for successful mango farming. Consider the following when choosing a variety:

Climate conditions

Choose early or late-maturing varieties based on your region’s temperatures and rainfall patterns. Mid and late-season varieties like Alphonso, Dasheri, and Langra suit hot, dry places—early varieties like Bombay Green and Mallika suit humid coastal regions.

Disease resistance

Varieties like Amrapali, Mallika, and Totapuri are resistant to anthracnose, powdery mildew, and hoppers. Choose disease-resistant types to lower risk.


Prioritize varieties that reliably produce quality fruit year after year. High-yielding types include Banganapalli, Neelam, and Dasheri.

Market demand

Research the popular varieties selling well in local and export markets. Plant those in the highest demand for the best returns.

Once you’ve selected suitable varieties, source healthy grafted saplings from reputable nurseries; grafted seedlings produce trees uniform in size, shape, and yield. Avoid direct seed planting, as this can result in delayed and uneven yields.

Scrutinize saplings before purchase.

  • Seek robust one-year-old grafts about 6 to 8 feet tall with a sturdy stem base.
  • Select saplings certified by government horticulture departments to ensure they are true-to-type, disease/pest-free, and have excellent viability.

Quality planting materials adapted to local growing conditions give mango trees the best start possible. Taking time to find optimal varieties and healthy grafts pays off with a higher lifetime mango yield per tree.

Preparing Your Land for Mango Farming

Terrain and Soil

Before starting mango cultivation in India, you need to make sure the terrain and soil are suitable. Choose an area that is well-drained, with a gentle slope to prevent waterlogging. The ideal soil is deep, fertile, and slightly acidic, around 6.0 to 7.5 pH. Test your soil to determine the exact pH and nutrient levels. Based on the results, you can amend the soil with organic matter or adjust the pH before planting.

Land Clearing and Layout

Clear any weeds, brush, rocks, or trees from your selected land. Plan out rows with spacing of 10 x 10 meters or wider between mango trees to allow sunlight penetration. Dig pits 60 x 60 x 60 cm in size where the mango saplings will be planted. Design an irrigation system and install pipelines across rows. Leave space for roads and paths between blocks of trees.

Apply Organic Fertilizer

Before planting, mix composted cow manure or another organic fertilizer into each tree pit to enrich the soil. Well-rotted manure provides nutrients for strong root development and healthy growth. You can also use the azotobacter function in your mango farming.

Install Support System

Mango tree plantation will require staking for support once planted. Install poles and wires before planting your saplings. Utilize double pole standards with galvanized wire strained between them. This support system will later keep branches from breaking under the weight of fruits.

Proper land preparation, soil conditioning, and infrastructure create the optimal environment for your mango orchard to thrive right from the start. Don’t rush this crucial first step in mango farming! Taking the time upfront will pay off for years to come through maximum mango production.

Caring for Your Mango Trees: Watering, Pruning, Pest Control

Caring for mango trees properly is essential for their health and high yields. Pay close attention to three key areas:


  • Water young mango trees every 2 days during the first year, especially during the summer dry season. Provide about 15-20 liters per tree.
  • For mature mango trees, water them thoroughly 2-3 times per week during the fruiting season. Provide approximately 40-50 liters per mature tree per watering session.
  • Water trees at the “drip line”-the outer circumference of the tree canopy where rainwater would drip from the leaves onto the soil. This encourages deep roots.


  • Prune mango trees when young to establish good structure and shape. Remove inward-facing branches, branches growing back toward the center, and any diseased wood.
  • Avoid heavy pruning, which can reduce flowering and yields. Do lighter pruning after harvest to remove old fruited branches and shape them for the next season.

Pest Control

  • Monitor for common mango pests like fruit flies, mealy bugs, mango hoppers, and powdery mildew fungus.
  • Remove infested plant parts, wash off the pests with water, or use organic sprays like neem oil. Prevent fungus with adequate airflow.
  • Hang pheromone traps in trees for monitoring and trapping fruit flies.
  • Apply organic fertilizers and biopesticides if needed for additional protection. Always follow package instructions.

Properly caring for your mango orchard by regularly watering, judiciously pruning annually after harvest, and monitoring for pests through the season will keep your trees healthy and produce bountiful, beautiful mangoes year after year. Let your trees reap the benefits of your tender, loving care.

Harvesting Mangoes and Maximizing Your Yield

It is essential to harvest mangoes at the right time to get quality and the best taste while also increasing your returns each season. As a beginner mango farmer in India, keep these essential tips in mind:

Know when to harvest: Search for mangoes that have reached full size, skin color, and odor. They should have a soft touch but not mushy. Test by cutting a few mangoes and seeing if the flesh is ready – it should be golden yellow.

Avoid picking unripe mangoes: They will never get ripe outside the tree and do not have a natural sweetness. Whenever possible, please wait for it to reach maturity and harvest the fruit from the tree.

Pick by hand: Cut the fruit using pruning shears hooked onto poles, being careful to avoid damaging branches. Handle the ripe mangoes carefully so as not to damage them.

Harvest Early: Harvest early mornings or evenings when temperatures are lower. Do not leave the freshly picked fruits exposed to direct hot sun for a long time.

Use padded baskets or crates: Line and pack all collection containers with soft cushioning materials such as shredded paper or foam to prevent compression injury. Don’t overfill harvesting baskets.

Sort & pack: As soon as mangoes are stored, place them under shade. Fruits should be sorted and packed in the shade to ensure good quality. Dispose of mangoes that appear rotten or are overripe immediately.

Prioritize food safety: Make sure to clean all tools, containers, and sorting or packing platforms before handling the ripe fruit.

KrishiSpray – Your Partner in Mango Farming

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Mango yields concern mango farmers since people only want to see the concluding part. We have attempted to show you how mango farming can be started now that this comprehensive guide has accompanied your effort for zero experience needed.

Well, what are you waiting for? Begin your mango farming in India right away!